Basic white bread

Nothing tastes better than a thick slice of freshly baked bread, still warm from the oven, with a generous spread of butter.


  • Melted butter, for greasing and brushing
  • 500g (3 1/3 cups) plain flour
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 375mls (1 1/2 cups) lukewarm water
  • Extra water, for brushing
  • 1 tsp poppy seeds, for sprinkling


Step 1

Brush a 10 x 20cm (base measurement) loaf pan with the melted butter to lightly grease. Measure all your ingredients. Yeast plays an important role in bread-making. It ferments and grows when combined with “food” such as flour and/or sugar, and warmed. Carbon dioxide is produced and trapped in the dough as tiny air bubbles which make the bread rise during cooking and give it its characteristic texture. These days, dried yeast is available in sealed sachets as instant granules that can be added to the dry ingredients without first combining it with a little of the water (and sometimes flour) to activate it. The sachets are best kept in a cool, dry place. Salt is added to bread dough simply to add flavour.

Step 2

Place the plain four, yeast and salt in a large bowl and mix well to combine. Make a well in the centre and add the water to the dry ingredients. The water needs to be lukewarm to activate the yeast and encourage it to grow. If the water is too hot, it can kill the yeast. To test whether it is at the right temperature, sprinkle a little on the inside of your wrist – it shouldn’t be too cold or too hot.

Step 3

Use a wooden spoon to stir until combined and then use your hands to bring the dough together in the bowl.

Step 4

Turn the dough onto a lightly floured surface and knead for 8-10 minutes or until smooth and elastic. Kneading distributes the yeast evenly through the dough and develops and strengthens the gluten in the flour which will form the framework of the bread. The best way to knead is to use the heel of your hand to push the dough away from you and then lift it with your fingertips and fold it over itself towards you. Turn the dough a quarter turn and repeat. You can tell when the dough has been kneaded enough by pressing your finger into the surface of the dough – if it springs back, it has been kneaded sufficiently. If the dough hasn’t been kneaded enough, the resulting bread will have a holey, crumbly texture and poor structure.

Step 5

Shape the dough into a ball. Brush a large bowl with the melted butter to grease. Place the dough into the bowl and turn it over to lightly coat the dough surface with the butter. This will stop the surface of the dough drying out as it stands, which can affect the rising process. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap or a damp tea towel and then place it in a warm, draught-free place to allow the dough to rise. A good place to stand it is on a wooden board on the door of the oven with the pilot light on, or in a sheltered, sunny spot. If the temperature is too high, it may kill the yeast, making the dough useless. The ideal temperature for rising bread dough is around 30°C.

Step 6

Leave the dough in this spot until it is double its size. This process is known as “proving” and the time it takes will depend on where you stand the bowl and on the warmth of you kitchen. The slower the rising, the more even and close the bread texture will be. However, if the dough rises too slowly, or too rapidly, the final bread will have a less even texture and an unpleasant yeasty flavour. This quantity of bread dough should take between 45-75 minutes t double in size. When the dough is ready, it will retaining a finger imprint when lightly pressed. If left to rise for too long, the bread texture will be uneven and have large holes. If not left for long enough, it will have a heavy, dense texture.

Step 7

Once the dough has doubled in size. Punch it down in the centre with your fist. This step, known as “punching” or “knocking” down the dough, release excess carbon dioxide produced by the yeast during rising so the final bread won’t have a “yeasty” flavour.

Step 8

Turn the dough onto a lightly floured surface and knead again for 2-3 minutes or until smooth and elastic and returned to its original size.

Step 9

Preheat oven to 200°C.

Step 10

Divide the dough into 2 equal portions and shape each into a smooth round. If the dough is unevenly divided and/or shaped unevenly, the final bread will be irregular in appearance. Place the portions of dough side by side in the greased loaf pan. Brush lightly with the melted butter. Stand the pan in a warm, draught-free place, as before, for about 30 minutes or until the dough has risen about 1cm about the top of the pan.

Step 11

Gently brush the loaf with a little water and then sprinkle with the poppy seeds. Bake in preheated oven for 30 minutes or until golden and cooked through. The best way to tell when the loaf of bread is cooked is to tap it on the base with your knuckle – if it sounds hollow, it is cooked.